Helpful Non-Optical Devices for Low Vision

By Bryan Gerritsen, M.A., CLVT
Edited by Maureen A. Duffy, M.S., CVRT

What Are Low Vision Non-Optical Devices?

Low-vision non-optical devices can include a number of adaptations, such as reading stands, supplemental lighting, absorptive sunglasses, typoscopes, and tactile locator dots. They are often recommended as part of a low vision examination. They can be used in combination with magnifiers and other low vision optical devices that can help with reading and a variety of tasks.

Before any optical or non-optical device can be effective and comfortable, you will need to:

  • Be motivated to use the device for specific tasks.
  • Be confident that the device has been appropriately prescribed.
  • Understand how to maximize the use of the device.
  • Understand the potential and limitations of the device.

Flexible-Arm Task Lamps

Proper lighting is critical for good vision. As we age, a person age 65 or older probably needs 15 times as much light to read as does a 10-year-old. And importantly, a person with low vision may need three times as much light to read as a person their age who does not have a vision loss. Therefore, flexible-arm desk or floor task lamps are perhaps the most helpful and important non-optical devices for many people.

flexible-arm task lamp
A flexible-arm desk lamp

Some advantages of flexible-arm task lamps are:

  • They are obtained easily at a variety of stores, catalogs, or online.
  • They can be relatively inexpensive.
  • They can be adjusted to a variety of settings and tasks.

Some disadvantages of flexible-arm task lamps are:

  • Some lamps may become very hot, so be careful not to touch them.
  • Be careful to position the light so that it does not shine directly into your eye and creates glare.
reading with a flexible-arm desk lamp
Reading a label with
flexible-arm desk lamp

There are many types of lamps: incandescent, halogen, fluorescent, LED, and full spectrum. Try different lamps to see what you prefer. Try to choose a low “Kelvin” rating – under 5,000 Kelvin (K) – so that it does not emit ultraviolet or blue light.

Perhaps even more important than the type of light is the position of the light—particularly the distance from the lamp to the task you are doing or to your eye. Bring the lamp closer to help maximize the light delivered to the task and your eye.

For more information about helpful lighting for reading, view Positioning a Light Source and Minimizing Glare.

Reading Stands

Reading stands can help with both reading and writing by allowing you to position your reading and writing materials more effectively. Using a reading stand when you read or write with a flexible-arm task lamp and your stand magnifier or other optical devices will increase your success dramatically.

a reading stand
One type of reading stand

Some advantages of reading stands are:

  • They bring reading and writing materials closer to your eye, thus helping to achieve “relative distance” magnification: enlarging letters and words by bringing them closer.
  • They help you see a wider field of view, or more lines and text at a time because the image is closer to your eye.
  • They allow better illumination because you are not as bent over, which can block out the reading light.
  • They provide better posture and ergonomics, which leads to less fatigue and strain on your neck and back.

Absorptive Sunglasses

Glare is a major problem and concern for many persons with low vision. Absorptive sunglasses help filter out bothersome glare and harmful light rays. Most sunglasses now block out ultraviolet light. However, to block out “blue” light, which causes concern for macular degeneration and other eye conditions, sunglasses must have some yellow in them.

The colors of sunglasses that contain some yellow and block out blue light are: amber, orange, amber/orange combination, plum, and yellow. Grey and green-grey colored sunglasses do not block out any blue light. Grey and green-grey sunglasses also do not provide as good contrast as do amber, orange, plum, and yellow.

absorptive lenses in amber fit over regular eyeglasses
Absorptive sunglasses
in amber fit over
regular eyeglasses

Some advantages of absorptive sunglasses are:

  • They can reduce bothersome glare, enhance or clarify vision in the sunlight, ease eye fatigue, and protect the eyes from injuries, such as walking into a low-hanging branch.
  • They block out harmful light rays. Most block out ultraviolet (UV) light, while amber, orange, plum, and yellow-colored sunglasses also block out blue light.
  • Amber, orange, plum, and yellow-colored sunglasses also help enhance or increase contrast.
  • Yellow-colored sunglasses are helpful for use indoors (reading, writing, doing handicrafts, using a computer) to reduce glare and enhance contrast.
  • They are generally inexpensive and easy to obtain.
  • They can be fitted over regular glasses and are available in clip-on or insert styles.
  • Please note: Clip-ons and inserts are usually less effective than fit-over or wrap-around styles since they do not block light from the top and sides.
  • It is recommended that you try on a range of colors and styles during the low vision examination to determine which color or colors work best for you.


A typoscope is an inexpensive piece of durable black plastic with a cutout opening that can help you focus on the line you are reading.

typoscope in place on paper
A typoscope in place
on the reading page

Some advantages of typoscopes are:

  • They can help you follow, or track, along the reading line; keep your place on the line; and track back to the beginning of the next line.
  • A person with a stroke and resulting hemianopia (loss of half of the visual field) can benefit from a typoscope when reading.
  • They can help draw your attention to where to look on the page.
  • They provide excellent contrast with the reading page.

A typoscope can also be a signature guide, especially for people with longer names. For more information about typoscopes, handwriting, and signature guides, see Signing Your Name and Handwriting If You are Blind or Have Low Vision on this website.

You can find typoscopes, along with a variety of rigid and flexible signature guides in the links to sources of products section.

Locator or Bump Dots

Locator or bump dots are black, red, orange, and yellow raised foam or plastic dots with adhesive backing used to mark appliances, dials, computers, and keyboards.

orange touch dots
A sheet of orange
locator dots

Some advantages of locator or bump dots are:

  • They are highly visible for people with low vision.
  • They are also highly tactile.
  • Because they come in various sizes and shapes (usually round or square), touch dots can help locate a specific setting on a dial, control, or device.
  • They can be used on ovens and stoves, washer and dryer dials, thermostats, microwaves, phones, calculators, and countless other applications.

For more information about additional labeling and marking techniques, see Labeling and Marking on this website.

You can find locator dots, along with a variety of other helpful marking materials in the labeling and marking section.

Colored Acetate Sheets

a yellow acetate sheet placed on a book page
A yellow acetate sheet
on a catalog page
  • When placed on the page, a translucent acetate sheet—especially yellow—can enhance the contrast between the print and background, making words and letters appear darker and easier to read.
  • A yellow acetate sheet can make newsprint easier to read by increasing the contrast and making the print “stand out” from the background.
  • The yellow acetate sheet fits directly over a letter-sized sheet of paper and can also reduce glare on the reading page.
  • They are generally inexpensive and are readily available at stationery, office supply, and “big box” stores.

Tips for Using Your Optical and Non-Optical Devices for Reading

You may notice some differences at first when you begin to use your low-vision devices at home. It may be different from what you remember it was like during your low vision examination. Many people have this experience and sometimes believe that the doctor or low vision specialist sent them home with the wrong magnifier or reading glasses.

It’s also important to realize that it often takes time, patience, practice, and much encouragement and support to successfully learn how to use all low-vision optical and non-optical devices. Family and friends can play an important role in encouraging you to be patient and to keep trying. They can also help you experiment with lighting, including different types and positioning, and to use the devices correctly as you were trained to do with the low vision specialist.

  • Remember that your home’s lighting and reading conditions differ greatly from those in a specially designed low-vision clinic or office.
  • Try to be patient with yourself when learning to use the prescribed device. Like any other skill, learning to read with a low-vision device requires regular practice over many weeks.
  • You’ll probably have to get used to holding the reading material much closer to your eyes than before. Reading at this very close distance may be uncomfortable at first, but it won’t hurt your eyes or cause your vision problem to become worse.

For more helpful tips, see Reading, Writing, and Vision Loss on this website.